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3 days ago

Shippen Manor

#CALIFORNIAGOLDRUSH James W. Marshall, Gold Rush & the Warren County connection

On 24 January 1848, James W. Marshall discovered gold on the property of Johann A. Sutter near Coloma, California. Marshall was a builder and was overseeing the construction of a saw mill on the American River at the time.

Marshall has an interesting pedigree that ties him to notable people in New Jersey as well as Warren County, NJ.

His parents were Philip Marshall (1789, Hunterdon Co., NJ to 1854, Hunterdon County, NJ) and Sarah Wilson Marshall (28 Jan 1788, Lambertville, Hunterdon Co., NJ to 3 Sept 1878, Lambertville, Hunterdon Co., NJ). His great-grandfather (through his mother’s line) was signer of the Declaration, John Hart (1717-1774).

Coincidentally, the Marshalls and Harts are also related to the Axfords of Oxford.

THE AXFORD CONNECTION

Captain John Axford III (1761-1843), the son of John Axford II (1735-1809) and Abigail Hunt (15 April 1738, Oxford, NJ to 26 April 1806, Oxford, NJ) and grandson of Oxford’s founding settler, John Axford (1692-1771) and Joanna Biles Beach Axford (1696-1795). He was also the nephew of Martha Axford (1741-1801), who was in a common law marriage with Joseph William Shippen (1737-1795) that produced seven children.

• Captain Axford received commission as captain under General Washington during the Revolutionary War.
• Captain Axford and his wife are buried in the Mansfield Woodhouse Cemetery in Washington, NJ on South Lincoln and Cemetery Hill Road (the older cemetery).

THE HART CONNECTION

Captain Axford’s wife, Eleanor Polhemus Axford (1767-1848) was the granddaughter of signer of the Declaration of Independence, John Hart (1713-1779) through her mother, Susannah Hart Polhemus (1750-1832). Her father, Major John Polhemus (1743-1834), was with the 1st NJ Reg’t in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. He was captured by the British and held in a New York City jail for three years.

John Hart was one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was a New Jersey farmer who lived in or near Hopewell, NJ. Hart was elected to the Hunterdon Co. NJ Board of Chosen Freeholders (1750), elected Justice of the Peace (1755), served on the Colonial Assembly (1761-1771), elected to a committee to “elect and appoint Delegates to the 1st Continental Congress" (1774), protested the Tea Act, elected to NJ Committee of Correspondence (1775), elected to NJ Provincial Congress (1776), signed the Declaration (1776), elected to NJ General Assembly (Aug 1776) and chosen as speaker. When his wife died on 8 October 1776, John was at her side.

When Washington’s army retreated across NJ in Dec 1776, the British and Hessians devastated the Hopewell area. They burned his home and farm and his two young children fled to the homes of relatives. Hart hid in the woods (see “John Hart’s Cave”: www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=30658) to avoid capture, but it affected his health, leading to his death in 1780.

#CaliforniaGoldRush #JamesWMarshall #SuttersMill #LambertvilleNJ #LambertvilleHistoricalSociety #HunterdonCoNJ #AxfordsofOxfordNJ #HartsofMercerCoNJ #ShippenManor #NJHistory #AMREV

RESOURCES

Armstrong, William Clinton. The Axfords of Oxford, New Jersey, a genealogy beginning in 1725. Shawver Publishing Co., Morrison, IL, 1931.

“James Wilson Marshall.” National Mining Hall of Fame & Museum. www.mininghalloffame.org/hall-of-fame/james-wilson-marshall.

“James Wilson Marshall House.” Lambertville Historical Society. lambertvillehistoricalsociety.org/james-wilson-marshall-house.

“John Hart.” Descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. www.dsdi1776.com/john-hart/.
... See MoreSee Less

#CALIFORNIAGOLDRUSH James W. Marshall, Gold Rush & the Warren County connection

On 24 January 1848, James W. Marshall discovered gold on the property of Johann A. Sutter near Coloma, California. Marshall was a builder and was overseeing the construction of a saw mill on the American River at the time.

Marshall has an interesting pedigree that ties him to notable people in New Jersey as well as Warren County, NJ. 

His parents were Philip Marshall (1789, Hunterdon Co., NJ to 1854, Hunterdon County, NJ) and Sarah Wilson Marshall (28 Jan 1788, Lambertville, Hunterdon Co., NJ to 3 Sept 1878, Lambertville, Hunterdon Co., NJ). His great-grandfather (through his mother’s line) was signer of the Declaration, John Hart (1717-1774).

Coincidentally, the Marshalls and Harts are also related to the Axfords of Oxford.

THE AXFORD CONNECTION

Captain John Axford III (1761-1843), the son of John Axford II (1735-1809) and Abigail Hunt (15 April 1738, Oxford, NJ to 26 April 1806, Oxford, NJ) and grandson of Oxford’s founding settler, John Axford (1692-1771) and Joanna Biles Beach Axford (1696-1795). He was also the nephew of Martha Axford (1741-1801), who was in a common law marriage with Joseph William Shippen (1737-1795) that produced seven children.

• Captain Axford received commission as captain under General Washington during the Revolutionary War.
• Captain Axford and his wife are buried in the Mansfield Woodhouse Cemetery in Washington, NJ on South Lincoln and Cemetery Hill Road (the older cemetery).

THE HART CONNECTION

Captain Axford’s wife, Eleanor Polhemus Axford (1767-1848) was the granddaughter of signer of the Declaration of Independence, John Hart  (1713-1779) through her mother, Susannah Hart Polhemus (1750-1832).  Her father, Major John Polhemus (1743-1834), was with the 1st NJ Reg’t in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. He was captured by the British and held in a New York City jail for three years.

John Hart was one of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. He was a New Jersey farmer who lived in or near Hopewell, NJ. Hart was elected to the Hunterdon Co. NJ Board of Chosen Freeholders (1750), elected Justice of the Peace (1755), served on the Colonial Assembly (1761-1771), elected to a committee to “elect and appoint Delegates to the 1st Continental Congress (1774), protested the Tea Act, elected to NJ Committee of Correspondence (1775), elected to NJ Provincial Congress (1776), signed the Declaration (1776), elected to NJ General Assembly (Aug 1776) and chosen as speaker. When his wife died on 8 October 1776, John was at her side.  

When Washington’s army retreated across NJ in Dec 1776, the British and Hessians devastated the Hopewell area. They burned his home and farm and his two young children fled to the homes of relatives. Hart hid in the woods (see “John Hart’s Cave”: https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=30658) to avoid capture, but it affected his health, leading to his death in 1780.

#CaliforniaGoldRush #JamesWMarshall #SuttersMill #LambertvilleNJ #LambertvilleHistoricalSociety #HunterdonCoNJ #AxfordsofOxfordNJ #HartsofMercerCoNJ  #ShippenManor #NJHistory #AMREV 

RESOURCES

Armstrong, William Clinton. The Axfords of Oxford, New Jersey, a genealogy beginning in 1725. Shawver Publishing Co., Morrison, IL, 1931.

“James Wilson Marshall.” National Mining Hall of Fame & Museum. https://www.mininghalloffame.org/hall-of-fame/james-wilson-marshall.

“James Wilson Marshall House.” Lambertville Historical Society. https://lambertvillehistoricalsociety.org/james-wilson-marshall-house. 

“John Hart.” Descendants of the Signers of the Declaration of Independence. https://www.dsdi1776.com/john-hart/.Image attachment

2 weeks ago

Shippen Manor

In remembrance of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... See MoreSee Less

In remembrance of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

2 weeks ago

Shippen Manor

#OnThisDate Jan 10, 1776 “Common Sense”

On 10 January 1776, 246 years ago, Thomas Paine published his “Common Sense” pamphlet, which advocated American independence from Britain.

Published by an obscure immigrant, this document ignited the desire for independence from the British government. About 120,000 copies were sold in the first three months in a nation whose population was around 3 million. Common Sense was considered the best-selling printed work by a single author in American history up until that time.

The pamphlet made a clear case for independence. Paine insisted that British rule was responsible for almost all of the problems in American colonial society and in the 1770s, the only way to resolve these issues would be by colonial independence. He maintained that independence could only be achieved through a unified action (all Thirteen Colonies had to participate). He launched an assault on the British government as well as the legitimacy of monarchy and hereditary power.

Common Sense (January 1776) text: americainclass.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Common-Sense-_-Full-Text.pdf

RESOURCES

“1776: Paine, Common Sense (Pamphlet).” Liberty Fund. oll.libertyfund.org/page/1776-paine-common-sense-pamphlet.

“Common Sense.” Bill of Rights Institution. billofrightsinstitute.org/primary-sources/common-sense.

Kiger, Patrick J. “How Thomas Paine’s ‘Common Sense’ Helped Inspired the American Revolution.” 28 June 2021. www.history.com/news/thomas-paine-common-sense-revolution.

“Thomas Paine.” Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington. Mount Vernon. www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/thomas-paine/.

“Thomas Paine.” American Battlefield Trust. www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/thomas-paine.
... See MoreSee Less

#OnThisDate Jan 10, 1776 “Common Sense”

On 10 January 1776, 246 years ago, Thomas Paine published his “Common Sense” pamphlet, which advocated American independence from Britain.

Published by an obscure immigrant, this document ignited the desire for independence from the British government. About 120,000 copies were sold in the first three months in a nation whose population was around 3 million. Common Sense was considered the best-selling printed work by a single author in American history up until that time. 

The pamphlet made a clear case for independence. Paine insisted that British rule was responsible for almost all of the problems in American colonial society and in the 1770s, the only way to resolve these issues would be by colonial independence. He maintained that independence could only be achieved through a unified action (all Thirteen Colonies had to participate). He launched an assault on the British government as well as the legitimacy of monarchy and hereditary power. 

Common Sense (January 1776) text: https://americainclass.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Common-Sense-_-Full-Text.pdf

RESOURCES

“1776: Paine, Common Sense (Pamphlet).” Liberty Fund. https://oll.libertyfund.org/page/1776-paine-common-sense-pamphlet.

“Common Sense.” Bill of Rights Institution. https://billofrightsinstitute.org/primary-sources/common-sense. 

Kiger, Patrick J. “How Thomas Paine’s ‘Common Sense’ Helped Inspired the American Revolution.” 28 June 2021. https://www.history.com/news/thomas-paine-common-sense-revolution. 

“Thomas Paine.” Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington. Mount Vernon. https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/thomas-paine/. 

“Thomas Paine.” American Battlefield Trust. https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/thomas-paine.Image attachmentImage attachment

3 weeks ago

Shippen Manor

#TodayinHistory The Battle of Princeton (3 January 1777)

A week after Washington and his men crossed the Delaware in a surprise attack on the Hessians stationed in Trent town (Trenton) on Christmas Day evening, he embarked on a 10-day campaign that would change the course of the war. This culminated with the Battle of Princeton on 3 January 1777. British commander, Charles Mawhood marched his forces south towards Trenton to meet the main British army when he spotted the American column. Washington and his men escaped the British forces along Assunpink Creek the night before.

--Lt. Col. Charles Mawhood: www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/charles-mawhood

Despite American successes in repulsing several frontal attacks at the Battle of Assunpink Creek (2nd Battle of Trenton) on 2 January 1777, Gen. Washington and his officers assembled. They decided that it was impractical to defend the creek and foolish to retreat south. Instead, they were alerted that the British failed to guard the road leading to Princeton and provided detailed information about the British defenses of the small college town. The Americans decided to continue with their original plan of striking deep into New Jersey and attempting to reach the mountains to the north. A small group of Continental sentries kept campfires to convince the British army that the Americans were still in camp. Meanwhile, the majority of the Continental Army marched northeast in silence and darkness.

--“Ten Crucial Days: A Second Success at Trenton”: www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/ten-crucial-days-second-success-trenton

Washington’s plan was to march his army within striking distance of Princeton by using roads below a bluff that lay to the south of the town. His army moved gradually in the darkness, which slowed their efforts and found themselves two miles from Princeton at dawn.

Washington amended his original plan and ordered a detachment under Brigadier General Hugh Mercer to destroy a bridge to the Continental Army’s left that led to Trenton. In the meantime, the main force, led by Major General John Sullivan, continued onto Princeton.

The Americans spotted British troops near William Clarke’s farm and Washington sent Hugh Mercer’s brigade to investigate. Mercer ran into the 17th Foot, which was stationed behind a fence at the end of Clarke’s orchard. During ensuing volleys, Mercer was wounded and his men routed by a bayonet charge. Washington’s army was outnumbered and he was about to split his army. He detached John Cadwalader’s Philadelphia Associators (volunteer infantry) to plug the gap. Although these men were green (did not have battlefield experience), they fought valiantly, but were also broken by the British bayonets.

--“John Cadwalader, Senior Officer of the Philadelphia Associators”: www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/john-cadwalader

Washington led fresh troops onto the battlefield while Joseph Moulder’s artillery battery fired grapeshot and canister, forcing the British back towards Clarke’s farmhouse. Washington counterattacked and broke the British line, causing them to retreat.

--Joseph Moulder: allthingsliberty.com/tag/joseph-moulder/

Further into town, two smaller engagements occurred at Frog Hollow and on the grounds of the College of New Jersey (Princeton), resulting in a British retreat.

While General Washington won a great victory and defeated an inferior force of British regulars, Colonel Mawhood delayed the Americans long enough to rescue most of his supplies.

The wounded were carried into the house and treated by Dr. Benjamin Rush, a famous Philadelphia reformer and member of the Continental Congress. The Clarkes living in the farmhouse also helped tend to the wounded. General Hugh Mercer, one of Washington’s closest friends and advisers, died in the farmhouse from his wounds nine days following the battle. Mercer County (where Princeton is located) was later named in his memory.

--Brigadier General Hugh Mercer: www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/hugh-mercer

--Ten Facts About the Battle of Princeton: www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/the-revolutionary-war/washingtons-revolutionary-war-battles...

--Story of “Black Valor at Princeton: The Role of African Americans at the Battle of Princeton” by Bob Zeller: www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/black-valor-princeton

#BattleofPrinceton #AmericanRevolution #MercerCoNJ #NJHistory #10CrucialDays #ShippenManor

RESOURCES

“Battle of Princeton.” Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington. Mount Vernon. www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/battle-of-princeton/.

“Princeton.” American Battlefield Trust. www.battlefields.org/learn/revolutionary-war/battles/princeton.

“Princeton Battlefield State Park.” Visit Princeton-Mercer. www.visitprinceton.org/things-to-do/historic-sites-and-attractions/princeton-battlefield-state-park/.

“Princeton Battlefield State Park Overview.” NJ Department of Environmental Protection. State of New Jersey. www.njparksandforests.org/parks/princetonbattlefieldstatepark.html.

“The Historic Thomas Clarke House: Its Preservation and Museum.” Princeton Battlefield Society. pbs1777.org/thomas-clarke-house/.

“Thomas Clarke House 500 Mercer Road.” Green Oval Tour. Historical Society of Princeton at Updike Farmstead. princetonhistory.org/green-oval-tour/thomas-clarke-house.html.
... See MoreSee Less

#TodayinHistory The Battle of Princeton (3 January 1777) 

A week after Washington and his men crossed the Delaware in a surprise attack on the Hessians stationed in Trent town (Trenton) on Christmas Day evening, he embarked on a 10-day campaign that would change the course of the war. This culminated with the Battle of Princeton on 3 January 1777. British commander, Charles Mawhood marched his forces south towards Trenton to meet the main British army when he spotted the American column. Washington and his men escaped the British forces along Assunpink Creek the night before.

--Lt. Col. Charles Mawhood: https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/charles-mawhood 

Despite American successes in repulsing several frontal attacks at the Battle of Assunpink Creek (2nd Battle of Trenton) on 2 January 1777, Gen. Washington and his officers assembled. They decided that it was impractical to defend the creek and foolish to retreat south. Instead, they were alerted that the British failed to guard the road leading to Princeton and provided detailed information about the British defenses of the small college town. The Americans decided to continue with their original plan of striking deep into New Jersey and attempting to reach the mountains to the north. A small group of Continental sentries kept campfires to convince the British army that the Americans were still in camp. Meanwhile, the majority of the Continental Army marched northeast in silence and darkness.

--“Ten Crucial Days: A Second Success at Trenton”: https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/ten-crucial-days-second-success-trenton 
 
Washington’s plan was to march his army within striking distance of Princeton by using roads below a bluff that lay to the south of the town. His army moved gradually in the darkness, which slowed their efforts and found themselves two miles from Princeton at dawn. 

Washington amended his original plan and ordered a detachment under Brigadier General Hugh Mercer to destroy a bridge to the Continental Army’s left that led to Trenton. In the meantime, the main force, led by Major General John Sullivan, continued onto Princeton.

The Americans spotted British troops near William Clarke’s farm and Washington sent Hugh Mercer’s brigade to investigate. Mercer ran into the 17th Foot, which was stationed behind a fence at the end of Clarke’s orchard. During ensuing volleys, Mercer was wounded and his men routed by a bayonet charge. Washington’s army was outnumbered and he was about to split his army. He detached John Cadwalader’s Philadelphia Associators (volunteer infantry) to plug the gap. Although these men were green (did not have battlefield experience), they fought valiantly, but were also broken by the British bayonets.

--“John Cadwalader, Senior Officer of the Philadelphia Associators”: https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/john-cadwalader 

Washington led fresh troops onto the battlefield while Joseph Moulder’s artillery battery fired grapeshot and canister, forcing the British back towards Clarke’s farmhouse. Washington counterattacked and broke the British line, causing them to retreat.

--Joseph Moulder:  https://allthingsliberty.com/tag/joseph-moulder/
 
Further into town, two smaller engagements occurred at Frog Hollow and on the grounds of the College of New Jersey (Princeton), resulting in a British retreat. 

While General Washington won a great victory and defeated an inferior force of British regulars, Colonel Mawhood delayed the Americans long enough to rescue most of his supplies.

The wounded were carried into the house and treated by Dr. Benjamin Rush, a famous Philadelphia reformer and member of the Continental Congress. The Clarkes living in the farmhouse also helped tend to the wounded. General Hugh Mercer, one of Washington’s closest friends and advisers, died in the farmhouse from his wounds nine days following the battle.  Mercer County (where Princeton is located) was later named in his memory.

--Brigadier General Hugh Mercer: https://www.battlefields.org/learn/biographies/hugh-mercer

--Ten Facts About the Battle of Princeton: https://www.mountvernon.org/george-washington/the-revolutionary-war/washingtons-revolutionary-war-battles/the-trenton-princeton-campaign/10-facts-about-the-battle-of-princeton/

--Story of “Black Valor at Princeton: The Role of African Americans at the Battle of Princeton” by Bob Zeller: https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/black-valor-princeton 

#BattleofPrinceton #AmericanRevolution #MercerCoNJ #NJHistory #10CrucialDays #ShippenManor 

RESOURCES

“Battle of Princeton.” Digital Encyclopedia of George Washington. Mount Vernon. https://www.mountvernon.org/library/digitalhistory/digital-encyclopedia/article/battle-of-princeton/. 

“Princeton.” American Battlefield Trust. https://www.battlefields.org/learn/revolutionary-war/battles/princeton. 

“Princeton Battlefield State Park.” Visit Princeton-Mercer. https://www.visitprinceton.org/things-to-do/historic-sites-and-attractions/princeton-battlefield-state-park/.

“Princeton Battlefield State Park Overview.” NJ Department of Environmental Protection. State of New Jersey. https://www.njparksandforests.org/parks/princetonbattlefieldstatepark.html. 

“The Historic Thomas Clarke House: Its Preservation and Museum.” Princeton Battlefield Society. https://pbs1777.org/thomas-clarke-house/. 

“Thomas Clarke House 500 Mercer Road.” Green Oval Tour. Historical Society of Princeton at Updike Farmstead. https://princetonhistory.org/green-oval-tour/thomas-clarke-house.html.Image attachment
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